A Spectrum-aware Clustering for Efficient Multimedia Routing in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
A Spectrum-Aware Clustering for Efficient Multimedia Routing in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
Multimedia applications are characterized as delay-sensitive and high-bandwidth stipulating traffic sources. Supporting such demanding applications on cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs) with energy and spectrum constraints is a highly daunting task. In this paper, we propose a spectrum-aware cluster-based energy-efficient multimedia (SCEEM) routing protocol for CRSNs that jointly overcomes the formidable limitations of energy and spectrum. Clustering is exploited to support the quality of service (QoS) and energy-efficient routing by limiting the participating nodes in route establishment. In SCEEM routing, the number of clusters is optimally determined to minimize the distortion in multimedia quality that occurs due to packet losses and latency. Moreover, the cluster-head selection is based on the energy and relative spectrum awareness such that noncontiguous available spectrum bands are clustered and scheduled to provide continuous transmission opportunity. Routing employs clustering with hybrid medium access by combining carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA) and time-division multiple access (TDMA). TDMA operates for intracluster transmission, whereas CSMA is used for intercluster routing. Thus, a cross-layer design of routing, i.e., of medium access control (MAC) and physical layers, provides efficient multimedia routing in CRSNs, which is revealed through simulation experiments.
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