SEND A Situation-Aware Emergency Navigation Algorithm with Sensor Networks
SEND: A Situation-Aware Emergency Navigation Algorithm with Sensor Networks
When emergencies happen, navigation services that guide people to exits while keeping them away from emergencies are critical in saving lives. To achieve timely emergency navigation, early and automatic detection of potential dangers, and quick response with safe paths to exits are the core requirements, both of which rely on continuous environment monitoring and reliable data transmission. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a natural choice of the infrastructure to support emergency navigation services, given their relatively easy deployment and affordable costs, and the ability of ubiquitous sensing and communication. Although many efforts have been made to WSN-assisted emergency navigation, almost all existing works neglect to consider the hazard levels of emergencies and the evacuation capabilities of exits. Without considering such aspects, existing navigation approaches may fail to keep people farther away from emergencies of high hazard levels and would probably encounter congestions at exits with lower evacuation capabilities. In this paper, we propose SEND, a situation-aware emergency navigation algorithm, which takes the hazard levels of emergencies and the evacuation capabilities of exits into account and provides the mobile users the safest navigation paths accordingly. We formally model the situation-aware emergency navigation problem and establish a hazard potential field in the network, which is theoretically free of local minima. By guiding users following the descend gradient of the hazard potential field, SEND can thereby achieve guaranteed success of navigation and provide optimal safety. The effectiveness of SEND is validated by both experiments and extensive simulations in 2D and 3D scenarios.
Comments are closed.