Delivery-Oriented Hierarchical Predictive Control Of An Irrigation Canal Event-Driven Versus Time-Driven Approaches
Delivery-Oriented Hierarchical Predictive Control of an Irrigation Canal: Event-Driven Versus Time-Driven Approaches
In this paper, we present the concept of a hierarchical predictive controller used for irrigation canals. The motivation behind this paper is the need in the field of irrigation to deliver water to farmers fast, but with minimal resources involved, as the communication links in the field are not dependable in practice. In response to such a control problem, we propose a hierarchical controller: the lower control layer is formed by decentralized proportional integral (PI) controllers and the higher control layer is constituted by a centralized predictive controller, the purpose of which is to control the inflow to the canal and, importantly, to coordinate the local controllers by modifying their setpoints. Having in mind the restrictions on the available communication infrastructure and the control equipment already present, the scheme is designed to be event driven, i.e., activated when there are either delivery requests or non-delivery-related events of any sort, requiring special care on top of the control provided by the PI controllers. We also study a time-driven formulation with an additional postprocessing step to avoid excessive negligible setpoint modifications. We compare the event-driven formulation and the time-driven formulation theoretically as well as by means of a simulation study for the West-M irrigation canal in Phoenix, Arizona, illustrating the findings of this paper. It is shown that the event-driven controller is able to provide a good balance between the control performance and the required update frequency of the control settings.
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