A 28-nm CMOS 1 V 3.5 GSs 6-bit DAC With Signal-Independent Delta-I Noise DfT Scheme
A 28-nm CMOS 1 V 3.5 GS/s 6-bit DAC With Signal-Independent Delta-I Noise DfT Scheme
This paper presents a 3.5 GS/s 6-bit current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with auxiliary circuitry to assist testing in a 1 V digital 28-nm CMOS process. The DAC uses only thin-oxide transistors and occupies 0.035 mm2, making it suitable to embedding in VLSI systems, e.g., field-programmable gate array (FPGA). To cope with the IC process variability, a unit element approach is generally employed. The three most significant bit (MSBs) are implemented as seven unary D/A cells and the three least significant bits (LSBs) as three binary D/A cells, using appropriately reduced number of unit elements. Furthermore, all digital gates only make use of two basic unit blocks: a buffer and a multiplexer. For testing, a memory block of 5 kb is placed on-chip, which is externally loaded in a serial way but internally read in an 8× time-interleaved way. The memory is organized around 48 clocked 104-bit shift-registers. It keeps the resulting switching disturbances signal-independent and hence avoids inducing output nonlinearity errors, even when a common power supply is shared with theDAC. This novelty allows reliable testing of the DAC core, while avoiding performance limitation risks of handling high-speed off-chip data streams. The DAC Spurious Free Dyanmic Range >40 dB bandwidth is 0.8 GHz, while the IM3 <;-40 dB bandwidth exceeds 1.3 GHz. The DAC consumes 53 mW of power and the design-for-test scheme -80 mW.
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